Our mission was successful! We met all of our primary goals:
Reach a height of 27,500 meters (90,200 feet); we made it to 30,880 meters (101, 325 feet).
Complete the launch and descent in less than four hours; our mission length this time was 3 hours and 23 minutes.
See the curvature of the earth on our video footage; see picture above!
Compare data with our first launch and see if we observe the same temperature changes at the same heights; our temperature/altitude graph looks very similar to our last launch.
However, we might have failed on one of our secondary parameters: Parachute not opening. Our cord between our balloon and parachute was too long and the balloon got twisted around the parachute lines. When we found the Loki Lego Launcher, it was totally twisted up.
By the Numbers
Height at highest point (apogee): 30,884 meters (101,325 feet)
Total flight time: 3:23:30; launch to apogee: 2:30:30; apogee to landing: 53:00
Temperature range during flight: -55C to 31C (-67F to 87.8F)
Fastest speed during flight: 127 km/h (78.9mph)
Distance between launch and landing sites: 126.8 km (78.9 miles)
Data is Everything
Our APRS Radio Bug that we added as a second tracker to our spacecraft was awesome. It was so fun to see where it was in real-time, and we were able to be close to our landing site before it actually landed. (Chasing the spacecraft in the car while it was coming down was super exciting). It gave us really interesting data that can be analyzed in several ways.
Plus, our data from our new VI sensor was really interesting. There is a lot more to analyze, but we think there are going to be lots of other ways to use use this sensor. We have a lot more data analysis to do over the next few days and weeks.
Our Solar Experiment Hypothesis was Correct
Our solar panel experiment that was on board was based on the hypothesis that as our spacecraft got higher, then there would be less particles in the air that would block the sun’s rays, so the solar panel would produce more current. Well, according to our data, this may be true!
As can be seen in the chart (that Dad did for us), as the altitude increases, the trend line showing the current data also increases. The other cool thing is that all those tests that we did while we were trying to figure out this solar experiment were useful, because this data shows that at least our circuitry wiring was correct!
Like last time, we talked about what we learned from our launch on the car ride back home from the recovery site. A few lessons we learned were new, and a few were similar to our first launch. We referred to our first set of lessons several times during Launch Day.
2:32pm Successful retrieval of Loki Lego Launcher 2.0!! We are so excited and happy and thrilled! We are now going for a cold ice cream, and will take some time to look at the data and the footage. Thank you so much for coming along with our launch today, we loved having you with us!
2:22pm. It has landed! We’ve parked and are walking through a tall grass field looking for it…
1:41pm It’s on the way down, and it exceeded 100,000 feet! We’re NE of Ritzville, and are trying to intercept it. Super giddy group of stratospheric explorers right here. SPOT signal re-acquired.
12:37pm We’re now back in the car; the hunt is afoot! Loki Lego Launcher 2.0 just broke through 80,000ft, thus exceeding our previous max height. Go Loki Go!! The chase is on.
11:31am We’re taking a short pit stop in Moses Lake. Can’t believe how fast the balloon craft is moving. The APRS data is phenomenal. Our predictor indicated that the balloon will double back, head west, and after bursting, it will turn back east again. Hard to say how high it will go, but it’s fascinating to get this data in real time. We hope the solar experiment is collecting good data! Back to the chase soon.
10:49am Now the chase begins. Follow along using the links above. The APRS data will also include altitude and temperature. We’re heading east!
10:42am APRS and SPOT tracking active. Heading in the right direction.
10:20am Balloon inflated, attaching to parachute and spacecraft now.
9:47am This seems like a nice place to launch a spacecraft. Launch will likely be closer to 10:30am.
8:47am Launch Directors have (groggily) confirmed weather and wind conditions. We are Go for Launch. Heading to launch site now.
7:15am – Both Launch Directors still sleeping, hmm… (Dad) 6:13am – Weather at launch time calling for sunny skies around 84F (29C) with 10-12mph winds from the WSW. It will warm up to 93F by anticipated recovery time, so it’s going to be a hot day! (Dad)
We have two online tracking system on Loki Lego Launcher 2.0. One of the lessons we learned from the first launch was to “have a redundant system.” We’ll be a lot less anxious now that we have two trackers on board.
The Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) is an amateur radio based system used for real-time communications. We are using the APRS radio transmitter in conjunction with our flight computer to transmit latitude, longitude and altitude to an iGate, or Internet Gate, which allows us to track our spacecraft in near real-time (one minute intervals) on a website like aprs.fi. The APRS does not work as well as the SPOT Trace on the ground, but it is the only way we can transmit altitude data while in flight. Thanks to Dad, we are officially allowed to use the APRS system because he got an Amateur Radio License (his call sign: KI7CSK).
The SPOT Trace is a GPS tracking device that can be used for a variety of applications. It is generally used for tracking things that may be lost or hard to find, like the Loki Lego Launcher. The SPOT uses GPS to transmit its lat/long coordinates to a web page or app approximately once every five minutes and can be attached to practically anything. One of the drawbacks of the SPOT is that it doesn’t work at high altitudes, as the satellite cannot track it when it is too high. It also does not transmit altitude, which was a problem for us in our first launch. It will be our main source for retrieval of the Loki Lego Launcher because it works best on ground.
Our testing is complete, we have our new tank of helium, and if the wind and weather cooperate, we are planning on launching Loki Lego Launcher 2.0 on the morning of Saturday July 30th. Launch location is TBD, probably somewhere in Central Washington again.
We’ll keep our blog updated, and will share a link that should allow anyone to track our spacecraft online in near real-time. We’d be happy to have you along for the ride! (by Dad)
As mentioned earlier, our second launch is going to have a few differences, including a bigger balloon, a redundant tracking system (APRS), and a different Lego minifigure.
However, the biggest difference is this time, we are going to conduct a solar experiment on board the Loki Lego Launcher. We are using a solar panel from a solar experiment kit, and we are beta testing a voltage/current sensor from High Altitude Science.
Here is our hypothesis: as our spacecraft rises higher through the atmosphere, the output produced by the solar panel will increase, as there are fewer particles that will block the sun. To test this, we will measure the output of the solar panel on the ground by using the voltage/current sensor, and then, when we launch the Loki Lego Launcher 2.0, the flight computer will continue to track the output as it rises. If our hypothesis is correct, when we analyze our data, we will see that the current increases the higher the spacecraft goes.
Our sensor is also wired to measure the computer’s current consumption. We will have to subtract the amount of current that our computer uses from our total amount of current to get the amount of current that our solar panel absorbed.
On Sunday, we tried to figure out how to wire our solar panel to the voltage/current sensor, and how to position it on our spacecraft. We tried many different configurations and did test after test after test. We think we did at least nine different tests that day, trying to figure out the best way to measure an increase in output of the solar panel. We were doing all the circuitry and wiring ourselves from scratch, which is tricky since we’ve only done some basic stuff at school.
At first we thought we should connect our circuit in parallel, but we wanted to measure voltage, so we connected it in series. But the way the wiring works, connecting in series means that we would need to have the solar panel in complete sunlight for the circuit to be completed and for the entire flight computer to work at all. It wouldn’t track any data. We thought we could use a jumper cable to override the circuit, and it did. A little bit too well.
Current will always follow the path of least resistance and it completely bypassed the solar panel, not getting any energy from it at all. After we figured that out, we went back to connecting the circuit in parallel and measuring current instead of voltage. That way the whole computer would still work without the solar energy, and we could still continue our experiment.
When we tested this configuration and then checked our data, we saw that the current and power increased when we put the solar panels in sunlight, and then decreased when it was in the shade. Yay, finally!
We’ll keep you updated on information. Stay tuned!
Today we are getting ready for Loki Lego Launcher 2.0, which is on track to launch soon. Our project plan has been created and we are reusing our spacecraft just like we said in our earlier post: “Planning for Loki Lego Launcher 2.0“. Our mission goals and changes from Loki Lego Launcher 1 can be viewed there.
We attached our newly updated flight computer from High Altitude Science, which, in addition to our temperature/pressure sensor, now has a voltage and current sensor. We also added a redundant tracking system called the APRS Radio Bug which relies on radio waves to communicate data to a web page. We will be posting links to track our GPS device and our radio tracking device on launch day.
Today we also field tested our two tracking devices while driving around town, and have found that both tests were successful. The GPS device can be tracked on our phone with an app and we stopped along the way to track the APRS device with the computer. We’ll post updates on the upcoming launch as the date approaches. Stay tuned!
Last week we went on a vacation to Florida. As part of our visit, we got to visit the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Cape Canaveral. The KSC is part of NASA and it holds some really amazing things. It is also where NASA rockets launch from. We were there to learn about rockets, space, and the Earth.
We took the KSC Bus Tour where we saw a mock-up of the rocket that Alan Shepard, the first American to fly in space, flew. The Blast Deflector was tiny compared to the ones we have now. Along the tour we saw alligators, manatees, wild boars, a bald eagles nest, and tons of birds.
We passed by the VAB or the Vehicle Assembly Building. It was HUGE. It is the tallest single-story building in the world. The 12 ft. doors that humans use looked like mouse holes to us compared to the doors that they moved rockets through. They are the tallest doors in the world and they take 45 minutes to open. They assemble all of the main parts of large rockets in the high bays inside.
We got to drive near Launch Pads 39A and 39B. They are the largest launch pads on Space Coast, the coast where all of the launch pads are. 39A is where SpaceX is launching their rockets from. 39B is where NASA will launch the Space Launch System (SLS) in the future.
The way that NASA transports the rockets from the VAB to the Launch Pad is by using a vehicle called a Crawler, and a Mobile Launch Platform (MLP). The rocket stands upright on the MLP which is raised above the ground. The Crawler will drive underneath the MLP and pick up the entire launch platform and rocket. The Crawler can carry over 24,000,000 lbs. which will enable it to carry very heavy rockets like the SLS. The Crawler Way, the path that the Crawler travels on, is 7 feet deep into the ground. It is filled with 5 different types of rocks to support the Crawler’s weight and its cargo. One of the types of rocks is from Tennessee and it is the only rock that will not make a spark from the crawlers treads. It takes the Crawler 4-5 hours to go from the VAB to the Launch Pads at a speed around 1 mph.
We visited the Apollo/Saturn V Center where we got to see the different stages of the rocket in all in one place. It’s the tallest rocket in the whole world. The Space Shuttle has about the same amount of thrust, but it is a much smaller rocket. We couldn’t believe how such a big thing could get up into space. The command module, where the astronauts were, was tiny in comparison with the rest of the rocket. We learned that you have to be going really fast to be able to break the earth’s gravity and go into orbit. They have to jettison the boosters because they are too heavy to carry once they run out of fuel.
One of the main exhibits in the Visitor Center was the Atlantis Exhibit. We saw the actual Space Shuttle called Atlantis. Atlantis was the next to last out of the five Space Shuttles built, and it flew the last mission. It was so cool to see it; some of the tiles had streaks on them because of the heat. Some of the other exhibits told us about the Hubble Telescope. NASA is developing another telescope called the James Webb Telescope that will be studying the birth of galaxies. Because of how long it takes light to travel, we can see things that happened billions of years ago if they were very far away. The telescope will also look for exoplanets and signs of life or water. The James Webb Telescope will be launched by another space organization, which is really cool.
We watched an IMAX movie called A Beautiful Planet. It was filmed in the International Space Station or the ISS. It taught about how to care for our planet and it showed beautiful views of the Earth from the ISS.
The next day, we got to have a private tour of KSC. Our tour guide was Mr. Malcolm Glenn. He was really nice to us and he was very energetic. He knew so much about NASA and taught us lots of interesting things.
He took us to see the VAB up close. Our necks hurt after a while looking up. The VAB has an American flag painted on it that is 21 stories tall. That was pretty cool.
We got to see a hangar filled with cool jets and helicopters! The planes belonged to a company called Starfighters. Apparently you can go up to 80,000 ft. in them. We thought that was really cool. We didn’t know that NASA had Huey helicopters either.
A full size mock-up of a Space Shuttle was built and was previously in the Astronaut Hall of Fame at KSC. Now the Hall of Fame is closed and being relocated closer to the visitor center. The mock-up, named Inspiration, is now sitting on the KSC property. We went to see it and it was very funny to see a full size Space Shuttle sitting in the middle of grass and bushes.
We also got to go to the Launch Control Center (LCC). We were super excited to go into one of the Firing Rooms! We sat down and looked through some of the procedures for a launch. We got to see the Launch Director’s Chair and see all of the different binders and procedures for each launch. Each Firing Room has a plaque for every mission that was controlled from that particular Firing Room.
On one of the walls of the LCC they had artwork that was done by the astronauts children for each launch. I can’t imagine what it would be like to have one of your parents be an astronaut and have them go into space. You would be so worried during the launch. We thought it was really cool that those kids could be a part of the mission and be remembered by everyone who walked by that hallway.
The most amazing part of the whole trip was getting to see a rocket launch. The United Launch Alliance Atlas V MUOS-5. It was launching the MUOS-5 satellite into orbit. The MUOS system is for the U.S. Navy. It was really amazing to watch the rocket launch. We went to an area that was quite close to the rocket so we got a very good view. When the rocket took off it left this huge plume of smoke and it was amazing to watch it shoot up into the sky. It was so fast that the rocket was out of our view in less than a minute. There was a delay in us hearing the sound that the rocket made because it took some time for the sound waves to reach us. Even so, it was extremely loud. It felt like a small earthquake was happening underneath us and there was a rumbling in our chests. It was a truly amazing experience and we will never forget how awe-inspiring that was.
Thank you Mr. Malcolm Glenn for being our special escort that day and sharing all your knowledge and experience about NASA with us. It was an unforgettable experience!
Dressed in our buddingSTEM clothes, we stepped onto the orange carpet at the EMP Museum in Seattle. Once in there we met John Cook and Todd Bishop, the two co-founders of GeekWire, and Jonathan Sposato, the Chairman of GeekWire. We had an interview with Todd Bishop and Taylor Soper, one of the GeekWire reporters.
We had a special treat, and were escorted up to the Blue Lounge, which apparently was built for Mr. Paul Allen to entertain his guests. We both got a Shirley Temple and a few snacks. We met a bunch of people from the biggest event sponsor, Wave.
Then we met up with Jennifer Muhm and Malorie Catchpole from buddingSTEM (who were last year’s Geek of the Year award winners) and walked through a few of the different EMP exhibits, including the Hello Kitty and the indie video game exhibits. We spent a bunch of time in the indie video games and tried out a bunch of cool video games. My favorite was called a video game called Metamorphabet.
Then the award ceremony began. They started out on the huge big screen with an animation of future technology. Then, John and Todd started to announce the winners of the GeekWire awards in the different categories. Ours was fifth, so we waited a little bit. A company called Black Dot won the Geek of Year Award. They provide resources for black entrepreneurs, and help get younger people more interested in being entrepreneurs. It was really cool for us to be nominated with them and the other finalists who were doing amazing things.
We didn’t stay for the whole event since it was past our bedtime, but it was enough to understand how much of an honor it was to be there. We feel very lucky to be able to do that!
We were invited to speak at a conference called “Girls Rule!” in Eugene, Oregon. It was organized by Ophelia’s Place, a “prevention based organization dedicated to helping girls make healthy life choices through empowerment, education and support.”
Girls Rule! 2016 was a conference for girls aged 9-14 that was focused on girls in S.T.E.A.M. (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math). We did several sessions throughout the day, including ones on money management, decision making, steampunk fashion design, and fun with fractals. They were all really fun, interesting, and interactive. We wish we could have done more sessions!
We were the keynote speakers at the conference. We were invited to talk about the Loki Lego Launcher. We had never done a speech before, so we ran through it multiple times on the car ride down to Eugene to get it ready. I (Kimberly) wasn’t nervous before our speech, but I was really excited. Rebecca was a little bit nervous, but she was still excited too.
In our speech, after giving an introduction to the project, we showed the audience our video, which generated a lot of applause. Then we talked about the different stages of our project, and then shared some of our Lessons Learned as well as the different aspects of STEAM. After that, we talked about some of the opportunities we got to have after our launch, including meeting the President. It took a while for the clapping to stop after we showed the picture of us and the President. After we ended our speech, we got a standing ovation, which was really surprising and unexpected but pretty cool!
Like we said in our speech, it was really inspiring to see how many girls attending the conference were interested in STEAM. We told them that science and technology are really fun and interesting subjects, and my sister and I have lots of fun doing projects like this. We’re just 9 and 11 year old girls, and if we can have fun doing stuff like this, then they can too.
Thank you to Ophelia’s Place for inviting us to speak and participate in your cool conference!